A high-resolution satellite image that reveals a train of coherent, submesoscale (6 km) vortices along the edge of an ocean front is examined in concert with hydrographic measurements in an effort to understand formation mechanisms of the submesoscale eddies. The infrared satellite image consists of ocean surface temperatures at inline image m resolution over the midlatitude North Atlantic (48.69°N, 16.19°W). Concomitant altimetric observations coupled with regular spacing of the eddies suggest the eddies result from mesoscale stirring, filamentation, and subsequent frontal instability. While horizontal shear or barotropic instability (BTI) is one mechanism for generating such eddies (Munk’s hypothesis), we conclude from linear theory coupled with the in situ data that mixed layer or submesoscale baroclinic instability (BCI) is a more plausible explanation for the observed submesoscale vortices. Here we assume that the frontal disturbance remains in its linear growth stage and is accurately described by linear dynamics. This result likely has greater applicability to the open ocean, i.e., regions where the gradient Rossby number is reduced relative to its value along coasts and within strong current systems. Given that such waters comprise an appreciable percentage of the ocean surface and that energy and buoyancy fluxes differ under BTI and BCI, this result has wider implications for open-ocean energy/buoyancy budgets and parameterizations within ocean general circulation models. In summary, this work provides rare observational evidence of submesoscale eddy generation by BCI in the open ocean.
BUKU Music + Art Project is an annual New Orleans celebration that hosts a number of big-name musical acts each year. In 2019, the festival will return to N’awlins on March 22nd and 23rd, taking over Mardi Gras World in downtown New Orleans. Described as an “urban music and art festival meets epic warehouse party celebrating the progressive subculture of New Orleans,” BUKU has released one of their biggest lineups yet.On Friday, March 22nd, the 2019 BUKU Music + Arts Festival will be headlined by Lana Del Rey, Excision, Kevin Gats, and RL Grime. On Saturday, March 23rd, A$AP Rocky, Dog Blood, GRiZ, and Louis The Child will lead the charge.While the daily lineups haven’t been fully announced, BUKU Music + Arts Festival has also confirmed Ella Mai, NGHTMRE B2B Slander, $UICIDEBOY$, Playboi Carti, Dashboard Confessional, Gunna, Claude Constroke, Fisher, and many more to perform over the late-March weekend.You can check out the full lineup thus far below, and snag tickets on BUKU’s website here.