Reopening Phase Orders Updated to Include 10 Additional Counties Moving to Yellow and 16 to Green on June 5 Press Release, Public Health Governor Tom Wolf and Secretary of Health Dr. Rachel Levine today signed amended yellow phase orders to include 10 counties moving to the yellow phase at 12:01 a.m. tomorrow, June 5. The counties include Berks, Bucks, Chester, Delaware, Lackawanna, Lancaster, Lehigh, Northampton, Montgomery and Philadelphia.In addition, the governor and the secretary signed amended green phase orders to include 16 counties moving to the green phase at 12:01 a.m. tomorrow. The counties include Allegheny, Armstrong, Bedford, Blair, Butler, Cambria, Clinton, Fayette, Fulton, Greene, Indiana, Lycoming, Mercer, Somerset, Washington and Westmoreland.With these orders, there are no counties in the red phase. In total, on June 5, there will be 34 counties in the green phase and 33 in the yellow phase.Gov. Wolf’s Process to Reopen Pennsylvania includes details of each phase of reopening.Yellow PhaseAs regions or counties move into the yellow phase, some restrictions on work and social interaction will ease while others, such as closures of schools, gyms, and other indoor recreation centers, hair and nail salons, as well as limitations around large gatherings, remain in place.The purpose of this phase is to begin to power back up the economy while keeping a close eye on the public health data to ensure the spread of disease remains contained to the greatest extent possible.Work and Congregate Setting RestrictionsTelework Must Continue Where FeasibleBusinesses with In-Person Operations Must Follow Business and Building Safety OrdersChild Care May Open Complying with GuidanceCongregate Care and Prison Restrictions in PlaceSchools may provide in-person instruction only in accordance with Department of Education guidanceSocial RestrictionsStay-at-Home Order Lifted for Aggressive MitigationLarge Gatherings of More than 25 ProhibitedIn-Person Retail Allowable, Curbside and Delivery PreferableIndoor Recreation, Health and Wellness Facilities and Personal Care Services (such as gyms, spas, hair salons, nail salons and other entities that provide massage therapy), and all Entertainment (such as casinos, theaters) Remain ClosedRestaurants and Bars May Open Outdoor Dining, in Addition to Carry-Out and Delivery (effective 6/5/2020)Green PhaseAfter a county transitions to the yellow phase, we will closely monitor for increased risk, such as significant outbreaks. If overall risk remains mitigated for 14 days, we will transition the county to the green phase.The green phase eases most restrictions by lifting the stay-at-home and business closure orders to allow the economy to strategically reopen while continuing to prioritize public health.While this phase will facilitate a return to a “new normal,” it will be equally important to continue to monitor public health indicators and adjust orders and restrictions as necessary to ensure the spread of disease remains at a minimum.Work and Congregate Settings RestrictionsContinued Telework Strongly EncouragedBusinesses with In-Person Operations Must Follow Updated Business and Building Safety RequirementsAll Businesses Operating at 50% Occupancy in the Yellow Phase May Increase to 75% OccupancyChild Care May Open Complying with GuidanceCongregate Care Restrictions in PlacePrison and Hospital Restrictions Determined by Individual FacilitiesSchools Subject to CDC and Commonwealth GuidanceSocial RestrictionsLarge Gatherings of More Than 250 ProhibitedRestaurants and Bars Open at 50% OccupancyPersonal Care Services (including hair salons and barbershops) Open at 50% Occupancy and by Appointment OnlyIndoor Recreation, Health and Wellness Facilities, and Personal Care Services (such as gyms and spas) Open at 50% Occupancy with Appointments Strongly EncouragedAll Entertainment (such as casinos, theaters, and shopping malls) Open at 50% OccupancyConstruction Activity May Return to Full Capacity with Continued Implementation of ProtocolsThe latest business guidance can be found here.The Governor’s amended yellow phase order can be found here.The Governor’s amended green phase order can be found here.The Secretary of Health’s amended yellow phase order can be found here.The Secretary of Health’s amended green phase order can be found here.Ver esta página en español. June 04, 2020 SHARE Email Facebook Twitter
He added: “F&C and BMO both take pride in having built distinctive and engaging brands – grounded in a long history of trust – and we share a deeply held conviction in working in the best interests of our clients.”Richard Wilson, Downe’s counterpart at F&C, said changes implemented in recent years put the cpmpany in a good position to develop.“Looking forward, BMO represents a unique opportunity to broaden and accelerate our ambitions,” he said.“The products, geographic presence and cultures of both organisations are truly complementary, and, with BMO’s commitment to growth, this is clearly a very positive outcome for both our clients and employees. We look forward to joining the BMO organisation.”At the end of 2013, F&C reported assets under management (AUM) of £82bn, down from £95bn just 12 months’ prior.At the time, more than 80% of its AUM stemmed from European institutional clients, according to IPE’s Top 400 Asset Managers 2013. F&C Asset Management is set for a £700m (€845m) acquisition by the asset management arm of Canada’s Bank of Montreal in a deal that values the company at a nearly 30% premium over its pre-deal stock price.BMO Financial Group, both the bank and BMO Global Asset Management’s parent company, announced today that it would offer F&C shareholders 120 pence per share, significantly up from its 93.8 pence price at the end of last week and resulting in a £708m offer.The Canadian group said F&C’s board would unanimously recommend shareholders accept the deal, with the acquisition set to close in May, subject to regulatory approval.Bill Downe, CFO at BMO, praised F&C’s “established pedigree” in fixed income, equity and property investments.
A microkini is an extremely skimpy bikini. The designs typically use only enough fabric to cover the genitals, so it is often considered necessary to remove or trim the pubic hair. Any additional straps are merely to keep the garment attached to the wearer’s body. CONTRIBUTED PHOTOS Baylon added it was possible the womanwas a “model” from Taiwan. MALAY, Aklan – A female Taiwanesetourist wearing a microkini on a beachfront of Boracay Island was arrestedyesterday at around 5:30 p.m. A microkini is an extremely skimpybikini. The designs typically use only enough fabric to cover the genitals, soit is often considered necessary to remove or trim the pubic hair. Anyadditional straps are merely to keep the garment attached to the wearer’s body. “Gin-istoryanamon ang management kag gin-invitesila kag ila guest sa police station,” said Malay policestation chief Major Jess Baylon. The municipal police station called onthe management of the hotel where the tourist was staying. She was then invitedfor an interview after her photos went viral on Facebook, earning variousreactions. “Indiman gid siya scandal, maybe it is her way ofexpressing how they appreciate the beauty of the island and the beauty of herbody. Pero sa aton conservative culture,it is unacceptable,” he said. He added: “Indi man ako kahambal nga model siya pero ang feature kagmoves niya daw pang-model gid.” According to Baylon, a citation ticketwas issued to the woman for violating a municipal ordinance on indecency. Shewas still detained at the Malay municipal police station as of press time. The most radical variations of themicrokini are simply thin straps which cover little or none of the wearer’sbody. Some variations of the microkini useadhesive or wire to hold the fabric in place over the genitals. These designsdo not require any additional side straps to keep the garment in place. “Taposmay fine siya. After that puwedi namansiya buy-an,” said Baylon./PN
All funds raised will go towards local Special Olympic athletes.Special Olympics B.C. dedicates its time to providing individuals with intellectual disabilities opportunities to gain valuable benefits such as friendships and life skills, along with athletic achievements. In Fort St. John, it provides year-round sport training and competitive opportunities in five different sports for over 50 athletes, along with the help of over 60 volunteers.Recently, Fort St. John’s Sheryl Jakubowski competed in the snowshoe racing event at the 2013 Special Olympics World Winter Games in Pyeongchang, South Korea, where she won a gold medal in the 4×100 relay, and a bronze medal in the 1600 metre individual event. Another local athlete, Darlene Jakubowski, also competed in South Korea, where she took home silver and gold in figure skating, replicating her on-ice performance at the 2009 event in Boise, Idaho.- Advertisement -The Loonie Mile fundraiser will take place from 10 a.m. until 2 p.m. at the Pomeroy Sport Centre.
Harlee Dean keeps his place alongside Tony Craig at centre-back for Brentford at Bolton, who welcome Joe Mason back from injury but are still without Liam Trotter.James Tarkowski, available again after suspension, is on the Bees bench along with fit-again duo Tommy Smith and Nico Yennaris. Bolton: Lonergan, McNaughton, Dervite, Mills, Ream, Spearing, Pratley, Danns, Chung-Yong, Beckford, Mason.Subs:Kenny, Moxey, Hall, Clayton, M Davies, Vela, C Davies. Brentford: Button, McCormack, Dean, Craig, Bidwell, Douglas, Odubajo, Pritchard, Judge, Jota, Gray.Subs: Bonham, Toral, Diagouraga,Tarkowski, Smith, Yennaris, Proschwitz.Follow West London Sport on TwitterFind us on Facebook
Two evolutionists appeal to “evolutionary forces” to explain the rise of bad science.A guy saws off the branch he’s sitting on. That’s a common theme in cartoons. Sometimes it happens in real life, too. In fact, there’s a Darwin Awards program for people who do stupid things that risk eliminating themselves from the gene pool (example on YouTube). This week, perhaps, it should be awarded to a couple of Darwinian scientists who say, according to New Scientist, “Evolutionary forces are causing a boom in bad science.”Paul Smaldino and Richard McElreath at the University of California Davis used an evolutionary theory-based computational model to analyse the problem of bad science. They found that “the most powerful incentives in contemporary science actively encourage, reward and propagate poor research methods and abuse of statistical procedures”. In short, it’s natural selection for shoddy science.There’s widespread concern that science is in a state of crisis. Vox.com reported results of a survey of 270 scientists about the seven biggest problems facing science:Academia has a huge money problem.Too many studies are poorly designed [i.e., not intelligently designed].Replicating results is crucial. But scientists rarely do it.Peer review is broken. [See 7/09/16]Too much science is locked behind paywalls.Science is poorly communicated to the public.Life as a young academic is incredibly stressful.But since natural selection cannot get from “is” to “ought”, there’s no way to call the situation bad or good. It just is what it is. In fact, if natural selection produced eyes and wings and a myriad of other trophies of progress, then Smaldino and McElreath ought to celebrate this new evolutionary innovation they call “bad science.”Smaldino and McElreath found that their model pushed researchers to do less rigorous science, and publish more false positives. They suggest that their model shows that bad science can be explained as a result of the evolutionary selective pressures that are acting on scientists.But how can they call rigorous science a virtue? The tree sloth is not rigorous. The earthworm is not rigorous. Some creatures are rigorous, like the peregrine falcon, but some are not. As for false positives, deception is common in nature: some butterflies mimic toxic species to avoid being eaten. If evolutionary selective pressures are acting on scientists, then Praise the Origin! Darwin’s theory is working, and humans are evolving—just like another article on New Scientist claims. On what basis can they ask scientists to escape the irrepressible evolutionary pressures that are acting on them?The only way Smaldino and McElreath can call bad science “bad” is to appeal to a standard that does not evolve. Perhaps they could use one that says, “Thou shalt not bear false witness” or “Thou shalt not covet what is thy neighbor’s” or “Whatever you do, do it heartily as to the Lord and not unto men.”Isn’t it funny how proponents of self-refuting claims fail to see through their own fallacies? Speaking of cartoons, they’re like Daffy Duck the moment before he realizes he just skied off a cliff. Hanging in mid-air, he continues quacking away, until he happens to look down. Then there’s that brief look of “Uh-oh!” and – pfew! Gravity takes over.Do your charitable duty while Daffy is quacking away. Snap your fingers to get his attention, and point down. Some may wish to do this before he skis off the cliff. (Visited 47 times, 1 visits today)FacebookTwitterPinterestSave分享0
The classic musical Grease is on at Cape Town’s Artscape Theatre until 11 April. Catch a glimpse of the show, and hear from some of the actors who bring its timeless characters to life.Click arrow to play video.Published on SouthAfrica.info on 24 March 2010.
29 April 2013South Africa’s Ernst van Dyk, who won a silver medal in the hotly contested London Paralympic hand cycling road race at Brands Hatch, is a two-sport star. His most recent foray abroad brought him more wheelchair racing success in the Boston and London marathons.Van Dyk, a nine-time Boston Marathon winner, claimed silver this time around in the American city and picked up bronze in London a week later.“These two marathons have always been back-to-back, so to win a double six days apart would be quite an achievement,” he said in an interview with Cycling South Africa.HecticVan Dyk endured a hectic six days in the wake of the Boston Marathon bombings, but thankfully returned home unscathed. “Initially we heard the first explosion,” he said. “Nobody was sure what it was. I thought it might be premature fireworks and everyone ran to the window of the hotel where we were celebrating the end of the race.“As we stared out, the second explosion occurred right in front of our window. It was an incredible blast and people got badly hurt. I couldn’t imagine who would do such a thing.“The Boston marathon has so much history. And they didn’t attack the runners. It was targeted at the families supporting the athletes.”SwimmingThe South African star, who as a 17-year-old also competed in swimming at the 1992 Barcelona Paralympics, has been one of the leading wheelchair racers in the two marathons for the past 14 years, but he also switches to hand cycling from time to time too.“For the London Paralympics I focused on cycling,” he said. “During the Beijing Paralympics, I won a gold medal in the cycling road race and a bronze medal in the wheelchair marathon. I was the only athlete to medal in two sporting codes.”Discussing last year’s Paralympic Games, Van Dyk added: “For London, we did not get a lot of athletics spots, so I gave up my place, which I achieved by finishing in sixth at the 2011 World Champs, so that a youngster could make the team, seeing that I was already going for cycling.”Van Dyk says the two sports of hand cycling and wheelchair racing are similar in terms of tactics. “The big difference is that in wheelchair racing we don’t have a crank, chain or gears. So physically, it’s very pure.Only two“I’m one of the very few athletes doing both disciplines. I think there are only two of us.”Besides his achievements in competition, Van Dyk is also very proud of the fact that he was the first person with a disability to graduate with a degree in sports science from Stellenbosch University.He is an ambassador for the International Paralympic Committee and the Laureus Sport for Good Foundation.SAinfo reporterWould you like to use this article in your publication or on your website? See: Using SAinfo material
The moment you enter South Africa, customs officials will be nearby and ready to inspect your luggage. If you are not certain as to what to do when you cross paths with them, don’t worry, our customs guide will help put you at ease.Travellers to South Africa are able to bring two-litres of their favourite wine without the need to pay duty or value-added tax. (Image: Brand South Africa)Whether you arrive in South Africa by air, sea or land, you have to pass through customs control, where you may be questioned and your baggage may be scanned or searched for dutiable, restricted or prohibited goods.On arrival, travellers with goods to declare must complete a Traveller Card and make a verbal declaration of their goods to a customs officer, who will then generate a Traveller Declaration (TRD1).If you’re found with undeclared, restricted or prohibited goods, you could be fined or even face prosecution. To help you avoid this, and make your arrival in and departure from South Africa as smooth as possible, here’s a quick guide to moving goods in and out of the country.Note: This information serves as a guide only. It remains subject to change without notice. If you are in any doubt as to whether the goods you intend to bring into South Africa are restricted, contact your nearest South African embassy or high commission abroad (see links in box on right).What you can bring in duty-free?Once you’re over the duty-free limitRestricted: goods that you have to declareProhibited: goods that you may not bringRather safe than sorryTravellers in transitVAT refunds for touristsHow much money can I travel with?What you can bring in duty-free?You can bring the following goods into South Africa without paying customs duty or value added tax (VAT):Consumable goods in accompanied baggage:Cigarettes – up to 200 per person.Cigars – up to 20 per person.Cigarette or pipe tobacco – up to 250g per person.Perfume – up to 50ml per person; eau de toilette (scented liquid lighter than cologne) – up to 250ml per person.Wine – up to 2 litres per person.Spirits and other alcoholic beverages – up to 1 litre in total per person.People under 18 can claim this duty-free allowance on consumable goods – with the exception of alcohol and tobacco products – provided the goods are for their personal use.Medicines: You are allowed to bring in one month’s supply of pharmaceutical drugs or medicines for your personal use. Any other pharmaceutical drugs or medicines must be accompanied by a letter or certified prescription from a registered physician, and have to be declared.Personal effects, sport and recreational equipment: You can bring in personal effects, sport and recreational equipment, either as accompanied or unaccompanied baggage, for your own use during your visit.In the case of very expensive articles, you may be required to lodge a cash deposit to cover the potential duty/tax on their re-export. The deposit will be refunded on departure after a customs officer has inspected the items and verified that they are being re-exported.Handmade articles for commercial purposes: Travellers from Southern African Customs Union (SACU) or Southern African Development Community (SADC) member states are allowed to bring into South Africa handmade articles of leather, wood, plastic, or glass if the goods do not exceed 25 kilograms in total, without the payment of duties and taxes.Additional goods: In addition to the personal effects and consumables duty-free allowances, you are allowed to bring in new or used goods in accompanied baggage to the value of R5 000, or R25 000 if arriving from Botswana, Lesotho, Namibia or Swaziland.What if I am over the duty-free limit?Once the above limits are exceeded, all goods brought into South Africa are subject to the payment of customs duty and value added tax (VAT) – including goods bought duty-free on aircraft or ships or in duty-free shops.For goods of up to R20 000 in value, you have the option of paying customs duty at a flat rate of 20%. Flat-rated goods are also exempt from payment of VAT. This is valid only once per person per 30-day period.People under 18 can opt for the flat-rate assessment, provided the goods are for their personal use.Once you’re over the additional R20 000 limit – or if you waive the flat rate option – then duty will be assessed and paid on each individual item you’re carrying, and an additional 14% VAT will be charged.Goods that do not qualify for the flat-rate assessment include:Firearms.Goods for commercial purposes.Consumable goods in excess of the quantities detailed above.Goods or gifts carried on behalf of other people. Not only are these are subject to duties and taxes, but they may also require an import permit.Goods that you have to declareCertain goods are restricted, and may only be brought into South Africa if you have the necessary authority or permit, and these must be declared on arrival. They include any firearms, as well as:Currency: South African bank notes in excess of R25 000; foreign currency above $10 000; gold coins; coin and stamp collections; and unprocessed gold.Endangered plants and animals: Species of plants or animals that are listed as endangered, whether they are alive or dead, as well as any parts of or articles made from them.Food, plants, animals and biological goods: All plants and plant products, such as seeds, flowers, fruit, honey, margarine and vegetable oils. Also animals, birds, poultry and products thereof, such as dairy products, butter and eggs.Medicines: You are allowed to bring in one month’s supply of pharmaceutical drugs or medicines for your personal use. Any other medicines must be accompanied by a letter or certified prescription from a registered physician, and have to be declared.A full list of prohibited and restricted goods is available on the South African Revenue Service website: www.sars.gov.zaGoods you’re not allowed to bringIt is illegal to bring the following goods into South Africa:Narcotics: any narcotic or psychotropic substances, including drugs such as cannabis, heroin, cocaine, mandrax or ecstasy; or any paraphernalia relating to their use.Any fully automatic, military or unnumbered weapons, as well as explosives, fireworks or weapons of mass destruction.Any poison and other toxic substance.Cigarettes with a mass of more than 2kg per 1 000.Any goods to which a trade description or trademark is applied in contravention of any law (for example, counterfeit goods).Unlawful reproductions of any works subject to copyright.Any prison- or penitentiary-made goods.If you’re in any doubt about the goods you want to bring into South Africa, contact your nearest South African Embassy or High Commission abroad or the nearest SARS customs office.List of South African offices abroad: www.dirco.gov.zaContact SARS: www.sars.gov.zaRather safe than sorryYou can avoid problems by making sure that you:Always declare all goods in your possession.Produce receipts for goods purchased abroad – including goods bought duty- free on aircraft or ships or in duty-free shops.If you are unsure of the value of goods which you should declare, ask for assistance from the customs officer on duty.Remember, failure to declare goods, under-declaration of the value of goods, or production of false receipts or invoices could lead to the seizure of your goods as well as criminal prosecution or fines of up to three times the value of the goods.Travellers in transitTravellers in transit to countries outside the Southern African Customs Union (SACU), which comprises Botswana, Lesotho, Namibia, South Africa and Swaziland, do not have to comply with customs formalities in South Africa.This applies only if you have been booked from an airport outside the SACU, and you are not travelling to your final destination by road. These passengers may not leave the transit area of the airport between flights. Their baggage will automatically be transferred from their international flight.Note, however, that customs officials may still search travellers in transit and their baggage for any illegal drugs or counterfeit goods. Anyone found with such goods will be detained and handed over to the police for prosecution.PaymentsCustoms duties and taxes are payable in South African rand. Payment can be made in cash, by credit card or by means of traveller’s cheques.Should you have any questions or doubt about the amount of duty paid or payable, or any other matter about your dealings with a customs official, you should take the matter up with the senior customs officer in charge. The receipt you obtain from Customs must be given to the officer dealing with your enquiry.VAT refunds for touristsValue added tax (VAT) at a rate of 14% is levied on the purchase of most goods in South Africa. As a foreign visitor you may apply for a refund of the VAT you pay while in the country – provided you apply before you depart.To apply, make sure you get tax invoices for your purchases. Then present these to the VAT Refund Administrator at your point of departure. If he/she is not available, present your goods to a customs officer, who will inspect the goods, stamp your invoices and deliver them to the VAT Refund Administrator, who will correspond with you on the matter.For more information on how and where to apply for VAT refunds, visit www.taxrefunds.co.zaHow much money can I travel with?Currency brought into or taken from South Africa is monitored by law. Should you have more than R25 000 in South African currency or $10 000 or the equivalent thereof in foreign currency, this must be declared.As a foreign visitor, you can bring in up to R25 000 in South African currency (rands), plus an unlimited amount in foreign currencies and traveller’s cheques, provided you declare this on arrival.On departure, you can also take out R25 000 in South African currency (rands), and up to the amount in foreign currencies and traveller’s cheques that you declared when you arrived – provided you didn’t stay for more than 12 months.Temporary importsPlease note that you may be required to lodge a cash deposit to cover the potential duty/tax on expensive articles if you are bringing them in on a temporary basis. The deposit will be refunded when you leave after a customs officer has physically inspected the items and verified that the goods are being re-exported.Visitors must notify the Customs office where the deposit was lodged at least two days before you leave to ensure that the refund is ready. You will find the office number on the documents which will be given to you when paying your deposit.If you are leaving from a port other than the port where you lodged the deposit, the inspection report confirming the re-exportation of the items will be forwarded to the office where the deposit was lodged and a cheque will be posted to the address that you provided.Conference organisersIf you are bringing goods into the country specifically for a conference such as pamphlets, brochures and banners, you need to do the following:If these goods are accompanying you, you need to follow the same process as normal travellers.If the goods are not coming with you but are being sent into the country at a different time (unaccompanied baggage), you have to declare them on a DA 306 form. You need to complete the form before you come into the country and take it to your nearest customs office when you arrive in South Africa. This is a simplified clearance procedure for goods that will not be sold in the country.Source: South African Revenue ServiceReviewed: October 2015Would you like to use this article in your publication or on your website? See Using Brand South Africa material
Ketogenic Diet ReferencesMartin-McGill KJ, Jackson CF, Bresnahan R, Levy RG, Cooper PN. Ketogenic diets for drug-resistant epilepsy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2018;11:CD001903. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD001903.pub4Rezaei S, Abdurahman AA, Saghazadeh A, Badv RS, Mahmoudi M. Short-term and long-term efficacy of classical ketogenic diet and modified Atkins diet in children and adolescents with epilepsy: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Nutr Neurosci. October 2017:1-18. doi:10.1080/1028415X.2017.1387721Astrup A, Meinert Larsen T, Harper A. Atkins and other low-carbohydrate diets: hoax or an effective tool for weight loss? Lancet. 2004;364(9437):897-899. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(04)16986-9Foster GD, Wyatt HR, Hill JO, et al. A randomized trial of a low-carbohydrate diet for obesity. N Engl J Med. 2003;348(21):2082-2090. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa022207Brehm BJ, Seeley RJ, Daniels SR, D’Alessio DA. A randomized trial comparing a very low carbohydrate diet and a calorie-restricted low fat diet on body weight and cardiovascular risk factors in healthy women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2003;88(4):1617-1623. doi:10.1210/jc.2002-021480Stern L, Iqbal N, Seshadri P, et al. The effects of low-carbohydrate versus conventional weight loss diets in severely obese adults: one-year follow-up of a randomized trial. Ann Intern Med. 2004;140(10):778-785.Bravata DM, Sanders L, Huang J, et al. Efficacy and safety of low-carbohydrate diets: a systematic review. JAMA. 2003;289(14):1837-1850. doi:10.1001/jama.289.14.1837Foster GD, Wyatt HR, Hill JO, et al. Weight and metabolic outcomes after 2 years on a low-carbohydrate versus low-fat diet: a randomized trial. Ann Intern Med. 2010;153(3):147-157. doi:10.7326/0003-4819-153-3-201008030-00005Lim SS, Noakes M, Keogh JB, Clifton PM. Long-term effects of a low carbohydrate, low fat or high unsaturated fat diet compared to a no-intervention control. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2010;20(8):599-607. doi:10.1016/j.numecd.2009.05.003Larosa JC, Fry AG, Muesing R, Rosing DR. Effects of high-protein, low-carbohydrate dieting on plasma lipoproteins and body weight. J Am Diet Assoc. 1980;77(3):264-270.Denke MA. Metabolic effects of high-protein, low-carbohydrate diets. Am J Cardiol. 2001;88(1):59-61.Seidelmann SB, Claggett B, Cheng S, et al. Dietary carbohydrate intake and mortality: a prospective cohort study and meta-analysis. Lancet Public Health. 2018;3(9):e419-e428. doi:10.1016/S2468-2667(18)30135-XSylvetsky AC, Edelstein SL, Walford G, et al. A High-Carbohydrate, High-Fiber, Low-Fat Diet Results in Weight Loss among Adults at High Risk of Type 2 Diabetes. J Nutr. 2017;147(11):2060-2066. doi:10.3945/jn.117.252395Liu L, Wang S, Liu J. Fiber consumption and all-cause, cardiovascular, and cancer mortalities: a systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2015;59(1):139-146. doi:10.1002/mnfr.201400449Reynolds A, Mann J, Cummings J, Winter N, Mete E, Te Morenga L. Carbohydrate quality and human health: a series of systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Lancet. 2019;393(10170):434-445. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(18)31809-9Dreher ML. Whole Fruits and Fruit Fiber Emerging Health Effects. Nutrients. 2018;10(12). doi:10.3390/nu10121833Chan CW, Lee PH. Association between dietary fibre intake with cancer and all-cause mortality among 15 740 adults: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III. J Hum Nutr Diet. 2016;29(5):633-642. doi:10.1111/jhn.12389 Author: Christian Maino Vieytes, B.S. Nutritional Sciences, University of Maryland, College Park, M.S. Candidate, Division of Nutritional Sciences, University of Illinois at Urbana-ChampaignKeto is in! The newest low-carbohydrate craze is the magic pill that will rescue all of our weight-loss efforts! Or will it?You may have heard about the ketogenic diet, or “keto” for short, over the past year. Don’t be fooled; the latest diet craze is nothing but a rebranding of the Atkins Diet, which was popularized by Robert Atkins in the 1970s. This fad diet is fixated on restricting an entire macronutrient category: carbohydrates (which by the way are the preferred fuel source for all of your body’s cells). The goal, of course, is weight-loss. It may seem harmless, but eating fewer carbohydrates means that you are, instead, eating exorbitant amounts of total fat, saturated fat, and protein.The burning question: is it an effective method for short-term weight-loss?… Yes! But hold your horses, as we will look deeper into the science to see what it has to say on this “newest” diet.So what led us here? Well, it turns out that ketogenic diets are incredibly effective for treating drug-resistant epilepsy. 1,2 This has been a well-known and recognized treatment in the dietetic and medical community for quite some time. The evidence for using this diet in the general public is nowhere near as convincing.Weight LossWhy do Atkins, keto, and carbohydrate-restricting diets cause weight-loss? The answer is not as appealing as one may think. These diets are very effective at promoting weight loss in the short term (i.e., for no longer than three months). The primary way this occurs is by water-loss. When we restrict carbohydrates and eat a high-fat, high-protein diet, our body begins to deplete its glycogen stores, which are the carbohydrate reserves that muscle and liver cells keep handy in case of starvation (remember when I told you that carbs were the primary fuel source?). Water binds tightly to glycogen.3 As you start using up these glycogen stores for energy, the water is set free. The result? You’ve lost a lot of water weight without burning a lot of fat.Repeatedly, studies have shown that weight-loss resulting from a ketogenic, low-carb diet is not sustainable. In these studies, weight loss was observed after 3-6 months, but the weight was regained after 12 months.4–6 Moreover, weight loss appears to be more related to reduced calorie intake as opposed to the carbohydrate composition of the diet itself.6–9Your Health is More Important! Low-carb diets may come with a host of potential side-effects that include: kidney stones, constipation, fatigue, irritability, and headache. The long-term consequences are a bit scarier: elevated cholesterol, increased risk of cardiovascular disease and cancer, kidney disease, and even osteoporosis.3,10,11 A landmark study, released earlier this year, reported that both very low carbohydrate consumption and high consumption patterns were associated with a greater risk of death from all causes, especially when the diet was made up of high amounts of animal protein and saturated fat that took the place of carbohydrates. 12So what should we make of all these data? The focus should be on eating the right types of carbohydrates. Eating complex carbohydrates, primarily fiber and those found in fruits, vegetables, and whole grains has been associated with longevity and weight-loss.13,14 Several studies have confirmed that eating vast amounts of these types of foods can help prevent cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and different cancers and promote better gastrointestinal health and function.14–17 Consumption of carbohydrate from refined and processed sources should be kept to a minimum.The Take Home MessageDon’t fear carbs! Just make sure to eat the right kinds from whole food sources. Ketogenic and carbohydrate-restricting diets may help us lose weight quickly in the short-term, but the long-term health consequences may not be worth it. Instead of embracing a dieting mentality and restricting and entire food-group, the focus should be on eating a varied diet with plenty of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and adequate amounts of fat and protein. Not only is this beneficial for long-term longevity and for preventing chronic illness, but the science says it can help with weight management as a secondary effect.