The “who’s who” of architecture convened in Venice late last month for a series of exhibits, lectures, events, and discussions to help kick off the Venice Biennale, a three-month contemporary architecture festival. Several Harvard faculty members made the trip, including Harvard Graduate School of Design (GSD) Dean Mohsen Mostafavi, who played a prominent role at the session.“The Venice Biennale provides an important opportunity for the architecture and design community to share and debate innovative ideas from across the world,” said Mostafavi. “As leaders in practice as well as teaching, an impressive number of GSD faculty were involved in the extraordinary installations, projects, and discussions that addressed the exhibition theme of ‘Common Ground.’ ”At the three-day opening of the world’s largest international architecture exhibition, Mostafavi helped to host the official reception for the United States Pavilion at the Peggy Guggenheim Collection in collaboration with the Graham Foundation for Advanced Studies in the Fine Arts, a leading supporter of architecture and its role in the arts, culture, and society. The theme for the pavilion, which is open through Nov. 25, is “Spontaneous Interventions: Design Actions for the Common Good.” It is based on a nascent movement by architects, designers, urban planners, and others who take the initiative to solve problematic urban concerns.During the reception, Mostafavi unveiled one of the GSD’s newest publications, “Instigations: Engaging Architecture, Landscape, and the City,” a work developed by GSD and Lars Müller Publishers. An exhibit last year at the School in honor of its 75th anniversary inspired the new book, which examines the GSD’s rich history, as well as its current and future lines of teaching and research.An exhibit last year at the School in honor of its 75th anniversary inspired the new book, which examines the GSD’s rich history, as well as its current and future lines of teaching and research.“This work will be read as something of a pedagogical manifesto and an authoritative history of the School, at least until the 100th anniversary in 25 years,” said Peter Christensen, M.Des.S. ’09, A.M. ’11, a Ph.D. candidate who worked on the exhibit and co-edited the book with Mostafavi.The chance to unveil the work at “the most important venue for the pure exploration of contemporary architectural ideas,” Christensen said, helped to reaffirm the School’s global scope and its reputation as a place devoted to the creation, testing, and execution of ideas.“It’s something, I think, the book attests to.”“This volume’s presentation of the School’s current preoccupations and future directions, as well as its storied past, resonated with the exhibition’s call for an expanded role for architecture in civil society,” said Mostafavi.As part of his official duties, Mostafavi curated an exhibition at the Venice Pavilion sponsored by Louis Vuitton and titled “Nicholas Hawksmoor: Methodical Imaginings,” for which he commissioned works by architectural photographer Hélène Binet. The show helped to document Hawksmoor’s contributions to British and European architectural culture in the early part of the 18th century. Mostafavi also participated in the panel discussion “Spontaneous Urbanisms” that explored the “state of the city and some of the motivating factors for the wave of citizen-led actions to improve the public realm.”Dan D’Oca, a lecturer in urban planning and design at GDS, was in Venice with his firm, Interboro Partners, a New York-based office of architects, urban designers, and planners that was commissioned to create an installation for the courtyard in the American Pavilion.“We wanted to make a space that was comfortable for people touring the exhibition who wanted to rest and hang out, but also a space that worked for different kinds of events,” like workshops, lectures, and panel discussions, said D’Oca.” Their finished design was a functional and recyclable “outdoor living room.”Red foam cubes were part of an installation for the courtyard in the American Pavilion at the Venice Biennale.D’Oca and his team borrowed the foundations of the temporary raised walkways that are erected during Venice’s high-water season to create the base of an elevated stage in the pavilion courtyard. They covered the stage with wooden planks and filled it with red foam cubes. Once the exhibition is over, the group will donate the planks to the city. The cubes will become part of Venice schoolyards and playgrounds.D’Oca called the biennale “a great collection of like-minded people” who “feel very passionately that architecture can play an important role in making cities more just, and more vibrant.”
Photo: Dan Rahn The DNR figures its nearly 20,000 agricultural water use permits closely reflect thenumber of irrigation systems out there.”Agriculture is the second-largest user of water statewide,” McLemore said. “It’s the single largest user of groundwater.” Nobody knows how much water Georgia farmers pumped into their fields over the drysummer of ’99 — or, for that matter, over any summer.”We can make some educated guesses,” said State Geologist Bill McLemore ofthe Georgia Geologic Survey, a branch of the Environmental Protection Division of thestate Department of Natural Resources. “But there’s no question that’s the weak spotin our water use information system.”With demands on water resources mounting, it’s a weakness the state can’t afford tocarry into the next millennium. So the DNR is funding a University of Georgia projectcalled Ag Water PUMPING (Potential Use and Management Program in Georgia).Agricultural Water Use HighIndustries and cities meter their water use, McLemore said. That allows for fairlyaccurate accounting. Farmers, though, don’t keep track of the water they use. Photo: Dan Rahn County Extension Service agents like David Curry (right) of Toombs County work with local farmers who volunteer to participate in the UGA study. Here, former ag engineer Tony Tyson installs an hour meter to enable technicians to monitor this irrigation system. Farmers water during the growing season. For their biggest crops, that’s about sixmonths. “For that period, they may be the biggest water user overall,” he said.”Some big farms use as much water as medium-size cities.”Ag Water PUMPINGThe need to measure ag water use was clear by the mid-’90s, McLemore said. So the stateasked the UGA College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences to devise a project tomonitor a statistical sample of the irrigation systems.”The U.S. Geological Survey had tried to get farmers to volunteer in a projectlike this,” he said. But the USGS approach didn’t get the needed data. “USGS hasgood planners in Atlanta. But doesn’t have a local presence close to the farmers.”The CAES, through its Extension Service, does. Agents in every county work daily withfarmers and have close links with CAES engineers and other scientists.Monitoring 400-plus Irrigation Systems”We put together a proposal to measure 400-plus systems across the state over fiveyears and develop (computer) models to accurately estimate total water use,” said UGAengineer Dan Thomas.Thomas, a CAES professor of biological and agricultural engineering, heads a UGA teamthat began setting up the monitoring system this summer. UGA technician Jason Mallard checks the flow rate on a southeast Georgia center pivot rig, one of the 400-plus irrigation systems to be monitored over the next five years. This story is another in a weekly series called “Planting the Seed: Science for the New Millennium.” These stories feature ideas and advances in agricultural and environmental sciences with implications for the future. Using the state permits, the team came up with a sample of irrigation systems tomonitor. They work through county agents to contact each farmer on the list.Farmers Take Part VoluntarilyTo include an irrigation system in the study, UGA engineers and technicians first checkits water flow rate. If the rig doesn’t already have an hour meter, the team installs one.Then technicians will check the meter monthly to see how long it pumped.The project still requires farmers to volunteer. But so far, that hasn’t been aproblem. “Most of our farmers understand the need for this study,” said DavidCurry, an Extension agent in Toombs County.Thomas said getting the monitoring part of the project in place will take two years.”About 170 systems are completed now,” he said. “We have three groups, andat times four, doing the installation.”Southwest, Southeast Areas FirstWater disputes in southwest Georgia and saltwater intrusion in groundwater along thecoast make water-use data from those areas more critical. They were the first areas to beincluded, Thomas said.The work will soon expand. In 2000, the team will not only put in the rest of themonitoring sites, but will start checking the ones already installed.As the data begins to flow, the work on the computer models will grow. The models willprovide accurate water-use data on many levels — by county, drainage basin, etc.”Statewide, we’ve got pretty reasonable water-use estimates now,” he said.”This will give us more precise data in local areas.”That data, McLemore said, is essential. “Natural resource management is based ongood science and good engineering,” he said. “And those depend on accuratenumbers.”For more information on the project, contact Thomas or research coordinator CathyMyers-Roche at (912) 386-3377 or agricultural engineer KerryHarrison at (912) 386-3442.
According to the research “Reisemonitoring”, which he conducted ÖAMTC, Austrian National Auto-Moto Club, Croatia is the leading foreign destination on the Austrian market.According to the survey, which was conducted in March and April on a sample of 800 respondents, Italy is in second place, Spain is in third place, while about 18 percent of Austrians for the main holiday remain in their own country. It is a very reference study with comparable data because the same research methodology has been used for the past seven years. The focus of this year’s research was on the organization of annual leave.The survey also showed that two thirds of Austrians plan their longer vacation (up to 14 days) at least once a year, while every fourth respondent also plans an additional shorter vacation (up to 4 days). During the main holiday, they prefer swimming and sunbathing, and use car (42 percent) and air transport (41 percent) as a means of transport, which is an increase in the share of air transport chosen by only one in three Austrian passengers in previous years. Croatia, ie the cities of Zagreb, Split, Dubrovnik, Rijeka and Zadar in the summer flying season are connected with a total of 31 scheduled and charter flights, mostly with Vienna, namely the airlines Austrian Airlines and Croatia Airlines.The data further show that Austrians prefer to organize their own holidays, ie without the mediation of agencies. This especially refers to the segment of young people who intensively use the Internet or direct booking, and these trends are followed by the elderly population, because as many as 56 percent of people over 60 also organize their vacation in this way.Austria has an annual share of about 8 percent in the total Croatian tourist traffic, which ranks this market in the high third place of the top markets with the largest tourist traffic, just behind the leading Germany and Slovenia. Also, over 60 percent of Austrians in Croatia are regular guests who prefer accommodation in hotels, then household facilities, and camps. During the last year, Austrian tourists spent the most nights in Rovinj, Poreč, Umag, Medulin and Mali Lošinj.Side dish:1. ÖAMTC Reisemonitoring: Holidays 2018 so bay and travel Austria2. Issue market profile: Austria http://www.cro-diasporacongress.com/