Two evolutionists appeal to “evolutionary forces” to explain the rise of bad science.A guy saws off the branch he’s sitting on. That’s a common theme in cartoons. Sometimes it happens in real life, too. In fact, there’s a Darwin Awards program for people who do stupid things that risk eliminating themselves from the gene pool (example on YouTube). This week, perhaps, it should be awarded to a couple of Darwinian scientists who say, according to New Scientist, “Evolutionary forces are causing a boom in bad science.”Paul Smaldino and Richard McElreath at the University of California Davis used an evolutionary theory-based computational model to analyse the problem of bad science. They found that “the most powerful incentives in contemporary science actively encourage, reward and propagate poor research methods and abuse of statistical procedures”. In short, it’s natural selection for shoddy science.There’s widespread concern that science is in a state of crisis. Vox.com reported results of a survey of 270 scientists about the seven biggest problems facing science:Academia has a huge money problem.Too many studies are poorly designed [i.e., not intelligently designed].Replicating results is crucial. But scientists rarely do it.Peer review is broken. [See 7/09/16]Too much science is locked behind paywalls.Science is poorly communicated to the public.Life as a young academic is incredibly stressful.But since natural selection cannot get from “is” to “ought”, there’s no way to call the situation bad or good. It just is what it is. In fact, if natural selection produced eyes and wings and a myriad of other trophies of progress, then Smaldino and McElreath ought to celebrate this new evolutionary innovation they call “bad science.”Smaldino and McElreath found that their model pushed researchers to do less rigorous science, and publish more false positives. They suggest that their model shows that bad science can be explained as a result of the evolutionary selective pressures that are acting on scientists.But how can they call rigorous science a virtue? The tree sloth is not rigorous. The earthworm is not rigorous. Some creatures are rigorous, like the peregrine falcon, but some are not. As for false positives, deception is common in nature: some butterflies mimic toxic species to avoid being eaten. If evolutionary selective pressures are acting on scientists, then Praise the Origin! Darwin’s theory is working, and humans are evolving—just like another article on New Scientist claims. On what basis can they ask scientists to escape the irrepressible evolutionary pressures that are acting on them?The only way Smaldino and McElreath can call bad science “bad” is to appeal to a standard that does not evolve. Perhaps they could use one that says, “Thou shalt not bear false witness” or “Thou shalt not covet what is thy neighbor’s” or “Whatever you do, do it heartily as to the Lord and not unto men.”Isn’t it funny how proponents of self-refuting claims fail to see through their own fallacies? Speaking of cartoons, they’re like Daffy Duck the moment before he realizes he just skied off a cliff. Hanging in mid-air, he continues quacking away, until he happens to look down. Then there’s that brief look of “Uh-oh!” and – pfew! Gravity takes over.Do your charitable duty while Daffy is quacking away. Snap your fingers to get his attention, and point down. Some may wish to do this before he skis off the cliff. (Visited 47 times, 1 visits today)FacebookTwitterPinterestSave分享0
Return to article. Long DescriptionLiving on Credit Cards by Images MoneyBe incredibly careful with paying bills on timeThose who are on the road to rebuilding credit must be scrupulous about paying every single bill on time, every time. It is probably advisable to put bills on auto-pay whenever possible, but don’t do this if it might result in overdrafts, and don’t forget to change these auto-pay setups if anything changes in your banking situation. Another way to handle it is to set up multiple reminders in electronic calendars and on cell phones (some companies will also send you reminders). If for some reason you know you will not be able to pay a bill, in part or in full, call the company ahead of time and speak to someone.Consider becoming an authorized user on someone else’s credit cardIf a secured credit card is not a possibility, or even if it is, another avenue towards beginning to reestablish credit is to become a secured user on another person’s credit card. It is important to understand that this basically gives you all the rights and privileges of the credit card with none of the financial responsibilities, so the card-holder must have a high degree of trust in the user that the user must not betray, or discord will inevitably follow. Becoming an authorized user also does not build your credit as well as holding your own card would. Build up an emergency fund so you don’t get in trouble all over againThe basic emergency fund is such a key financial tool, but it’s amazing how many Americans don’t have this cushion available. Such a fund is no doubt even more important for people coming back from bankruptcy. Although it may be hard to build up, it’s worth it. Even $250 can make a big difference.Create and stick to a budgetAlthough bankruptcy often does come about as the result of unavoidable circumstances, such as massive medical bills, recovering from this situation may well entail learning or relearning good budgeting habits, so that the consumer does not get caught in the same situation again. Making and sticking to a clear and user-friendly monthly budget with realistic and accurate numbers can help bankruptcy filers stay on track in the long term, especially if they are attempting to repay obligations under Chapter 13. Watch out for predatory lendersPayday loans, rent-to-own, car title loans…all these predatory practices are a bad idea for borrowers, but these businesses tend to know that consumers with poor credit are especially likely to fall into this trap. As a result, they may market to those in this situation. People with poor credit need to be especially careful to avoid these dangerous loans. By Carol ChurchBad credit can and does happen to good people. Whether it’s the result of a huge and unexpected medical bill, or a painful divorce, bad decisions made in someone’s youth, bankruptcy, or a foreclosed home, the results can be a lot of anxiety, self-blame, and fear that credit will never be obtainable again. This problem is common among members of our nation’s armed forces. However, as long as those with poor credit turn over a new leaf, the good news is that “time heals.” As the years go by, if credit-related behavior is responsible, credit scores should gradually improve. However, that can be a long time to wait. What can be done to start rebuilding a low credit score as soon as possible? Start fresh with a secured credit cardA secured credit card is a credit card that requires applicants to put down a deposit before opening an account. In this way, the issuer has money to fall back on if the cardholder becomes delinquent. Most of the time, the deposit amount will be equivalent to the card’s credit limit.It’s important for cardholders to remember that even though they have paid the full value of the card as a deposit, secured cards work just like “regular” credit cards—they need to pay by the statement due date, and if they don’t pay in full, they will be charged interest. Those who handle secured credit cards well may be offered the opportunity to “transform” the secured card into a regular one, but should be sure to look at the fees and benefits of the card first.Watch credit reports like a hawkMake sure you file for your free credit report every year. Read it, and find and fix any mistakes. There will be accurate, negative items on that report, so don’t let untruthful ones pull the score down any further. Try a credit builder loan from a credit unionTypically issued to its members by a credit union, a credit builder loan is intended to help people with poor credit or no credit build credit, at no risk to the bank. Typically, it works like this: The bank “loans” you a relatively small amount of money ($250-1500), but you don’t actually receive it until the end of the loan. Instead, you pay the bank a set amount every month, on time, including some (relatively low) interest, and then get the amount at the end. Success will mean that your credit score goes up. It sounds a little crazy, but the idea is to prove to the credit bureaus that you can be trusted to pay a bill on time.If you have some money in the bank but can’t get credit, you can also use this same concept to “borrow against” the money you yourself have in the bank. That money is inaccessible to you until you “pay off” the credit builder loan. Flikr image obtained 2/10/2016. Photo by: https://www.flickr.com/photos/59937401@N07/
Moody’s rating agency has upgraded Royal Caribbean Cruises’ senior unsecured rating to Baa2 from Baa3, and assigned a P-2 rating to the company’s planned USD 1.15 billion commercial paper program.The rating agency added that the company’s rating outlook is stable.“The upgrade to Baa2 reflects Moody’s expectation that Royal Caribbean will benefit from strong booking trends, increased onboard spending and the introduction of new ships which will enable the company to maintain leverage below 3.5x,” Pete Trombetta, Moody’s lead lodging and cruise analyst, said.“The upgrade also reflects the company’s improved liquidity position, including reduced outstandings under its committed revolving credit facilities,” Trombetta added.The P-2 commercial paper rating reflects RCL’s adequate liquidity, supported by its strong free cash flow generation which is sufficient to cover debt maturities over the next 24 months.Constraining the company’s liquidity profile is the large cash outflows related to new ship deliveries which cause spikes in capital expenditures throughout the year.RCL also has a USD 1.4 billion revolver due 2020 and a USD 1.2 billion revolver due in 2022; combined outstandings of about USD 700 million at March 31, 2018.The revolvers do not require a material adverse change representation at borrowing, but do contain financial covenants which are expected to maintain ample headroom, Moody’s concluded.